Gīlīm is one of the traditional and enchantingly beautiful handicrafts of Iran whose oldest sample dates back to the Parthian era. Although more than thirty different types of Gīlīm have been discovered, it is possible to classify Iranian carpets into three categories:
1- The category of plain, two-sided and flat Gīlīms that are woven by ‘Pūdgozārī’ (weft-placing) method. These Gīlīms –that are only made up of weft and wharf- are thinner in comparison with other types of Gīlīms, and identical designs are used on both sides which enables the customer to use either side of them to his discretion. Gīlīms of Seneh and Bījār in Kordestān Province and Gīlīms of Ardabīl, Semnān and Zanjān are put in this group.
2-The group of one-sided or ‘Sūmak’ Gīlīms that are woven by means of ‘Pūdpīcheshī’ (weft-twisting) method. These Gīlīms are thicker than the ordinary ones and have weft, twisted wharf and thin warp. Since the surplus of twisted wharf is hidden at the back of this type of Gīlīm, it consequently becomes one-sided and thicker than Gīlīm, and the colored threads spread miscellaneously on the back side.
3-And finally the third group of Iranian Gīlīms is ‘Golbarjasteh’ (flower-embossed) Gīlīms that are one of the fascinating and most significant handicrafts of Iran, due to its considerable beauty and delicate simplicity. The weaving equipment in ‘Golbarjasteh’ is the same as ordinary, two-sided Gīlīms, but its discrepancy lies in its weaving method. In this method the foundation (background) of the Gīlīm is woven using the standard Gīlīm-weaving method, but in flower-embossed areas the carpet-weaving procedure is employed (knotted and fuzzy). The ingredients of ‘Golbarjasteh’ Gīlīms are cotton, wool, and silk yarn that can be utilized by the artists according to their tastes or the customer’s orders. The finest samples of Golbarjasteh Gīlīms are found in Īlām, Kohgīlūyeh, Markazi and Fars provinces.